Friday, December 15, 2006

一個耳熟能詳的現象 – 兔子和狼 (1)



在生態學(Ecology)中有一個著名的研究:兔子和狼在森林中有一定的數量,兔子當然較多,而狼則很少。狼以兔子作餐,而兔子則以林中各種植物為食。研究發現,經過一段時間的量度,兩者的“數量”同時呈現一組Sine Curve,如圖左/上:

(請恕不按比例)

研究發現:
當狼吃兔子,兔子的數量自然減少,但當兔子的數量低過某一個界限時,因為狼找不到足夠的食物,所以數量便相應下降(例如狼 媽媽因為營養少,所以會少一點狼BB)。這個時候,兔子因為狼少了,數量便回升,最後因為兔子數量太多,甚至在狼穴旁邊起屋做鄰居,所以兔子的數量又再度回落,從此周而復始。

特別之處是,當研究人員因為不忍見兔子被獵殺,而作出保護措施時,兔子的死亡反而更多,原因是兔子是一種繁殖速度非常快的可愛動物,當缺少狼的威脅,兔子便繁衍在整個森林,把可吃的都吃掉,因為植物生長需時,終於是導致 “飢荒”,直接威脅兔子和狼的生存。


Action vs Reaction + 有為 vs無為

以上例子,絕對不是引導老闆要維持什麼政治生態平衡,但對於一眾老闆、上司及人力資源從業員來說,以上情況對於處理不少員工問題時亦同樣適用。

例如升職加人工,中短期內,員工投入感會因其加幅而作出相應提升(泛指一般情況,不是說加你1元升你做經理等等),過了一段時間,反作用力生效(例如工作壓力、不適應新工作性質等),有如股民說“利好消息已被市場消化”,員工會漸漸遺忘對上一次老闆的提拔。很多時,決定性的因素不是之前加幅太少,而是新工作所帶來的支持(例如滿足感等)減少。

嘩,老闆唔係佢地老豆播!

做老闆肯定辛苦(問問CK或渣沽就知道),員工要靠老闆出糧供樓,老闆要靠員工賺錢,如果老闆想做少點當然可以,只要發掘到原來某君在某崗位幹得出色之餘,其工作又能自自動動帶給員工持久的動力,一世都咁衝勁,咁做老闆既米輕鬆好多囉。所以人力資源從業員及主管經理們,便需要在這方面為老闆分憂也。(至於老闆會否empower 其他人去做還是繼續“攞苦黎身”則作後話。)

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IQ題1:Self-Motivation 是否真有其事? (這個問題好深,求救!) - 自問自答

IQ題2:是不是有時什麼都不作,結果反而更好? 見 兔子和狼(2)對鐵鎚兄之回應
********************


Motivation by stages + true recognition

而要維繫持久動力,便需要給予相當的滿足感,而所謂給予滿足感,其中一種方法就是讓員工覺得今次工作已經完成,可以進行下一步工作。可是這種方法經常被人遺忘。

又有人問:“不如 set Action Plan 丫”。

不錯,Action Plan 可以讓某些員工“知道”每項工作已經到達那一個“地步/階段”,但“知道”並不代表“感受到”已經完成某一階段,然後換來 Satisfaction。所以,不如做下選擇題:

下策者:有得佢,等員工自行消化,讓他們自己收到份糧之後去 Prada 兌換滿足感。

中策者:“有為”一點,主動宣告已經完成一個階段,做些少慶祝,例如簡單講句:“抖兩日再搏殺下一階段啦。”甚至“今晚阿Sir請食飯”等等。但仍然要堅持一個重點,就是讓員工去真正接受這個階段已經完成,而阿 Sir亦是看到的,緊記,一定要真誠。(Keyword:氣氛、凝聚力)其背後理念與Performance-linked incentive system 相似。

上策者:我無任何上策。(.... 或許平日多點聽取下屬意見,“尊重”他們可能相當無稽的看法,無論有否滿足感,有時他們都可以為你赴湯蹈火。是否有些先決條件應該要先留意?)


即日小實例

剛巧今早,CM的老頂覆核美術部一張設計圖後,著我“立一立”後轉交給他們。

我見到,並不是只有錯的地方,才加上評語或作修改,連對的,畫得特別好的地方,她都寫個大 Tick。

雖然兩者各屬不同部門,嚴格上沒有上下屬之分,又沒有強烈利益關係,但美術部何解會這麼尊重我老頂,似乎都一點因由。

14 comments:

Karen (Sze) said...

用"兔子和狼"去比喻處理員工問題真係一絕(我以前同依家讀HR都唔適用這個比喻, 我真係蠢)!

嘗試回答IQ題1:Self-Motivation 是否真有其事?

有o既, 暫時分兩種: 一種天生Self-Motivation, 可能係天生出o黎的性格有自我推動的能力----即係遺傳, 但好少數人係天生的。

另一種係後天Self-Motivation, 本身性格不是有自我推動的能力, 因為受到某些刺激(例如要替公司賺錢來分花紅, 要打倒competitors等等), 於是有動力去推動自己完滿地去完成一件事。

所以某些公司請人其中一項條件是Self-Motivation亦不足為奇。

而您所言"Motivation by stages + true recognition"甚是, 正是得出員工job satisfaction的結果: 但要換來員工滿意, 由於每人所需所認為的不同, 所以有上, 中, 下策者之分: 您都講中策和下策, 因此不贅; 但係上策者, 除了平日多點聽取下屬意見,可能係講到下放某些權力(delegation), 甚至擢升位置的問題; 但要小心處理, 一不小心會演變成公司權力鬥爭的問題, 所以有些公司頂多下放一些無關重要的權力俾員工等d員工開心一下, 至於升職就要視乎空缺及累積的工作表演和成績而定。

至於第二題, 等您回覆, 下星期再談。

C.M. said...

Karen,

Re:Q1

然則如果有人是Self-Motivated ,他們是利用什麼 Motivate 自己的呢?

另外,如你所說,如果有人"因為受到某些刺激" 而去推動自己,那是 "being motivated" 還是 "auto-motivated"?

唔....老實說,若有公司要請一個能夠自己motivate 自己的人,我都不知道申唔申請好....


Re:"Delegation"

坊間有時會分開授權(Empower)與委托(Delegate)為兩種不同的意義。此課題暫且不表,因為小弟對此方面的體會不甚了了,需累積更多經驗。

不過,我同意有些公司可能為了某些原因,比權利D 員工開心下。不過,個人覺得此舉只能為緩兵之計,還應要了解其背後原因,才使決策合情合理和真的有助公司發展。

C.M. said...

Re: Empowerment and Delegation

補充坊間亦有稱 Empowerment 為賦權,Delegation 為授權。抱歉。

Karen (Sze) said...

理解如下: -

1."如果有人是Self-Motivated ,他們是利用什麼 Motivate 自己的呢?"

可以好多, 不幸的大多數都係錢和物質。


2.如果有人"因為受到某些刺激" 而去推動自己,那是 "being motivated"----即係好多時那位employee平時做事不算積極, 甚至懶散, 但係到了重要關頭(例如要令top management在炒人名單上冇自己個名, 要替公司賺錢來分花紅, 要打倒competitors等等), 就自願或不自願地發揮小宇宙----Motivation, 去推動自己完滿地去完成一件事。

C.M. said...

Karen:

抱歉,想再了解多D...

1. 如果係錢同物質會造成Self-motivation。咁D錢同物質有係由邊度黎既呢?如果D錢同物質係由老細比既,又算唔算Self-Motivate 呢?

2. 記得Theory X 同Theory Y D 人嘛?若果Karen屬於Theory Y既人,鍾意做野既,但又係一間無乜前景既公司做,咁你日常做既時候,會因為乜野原因做呢?

Karen (Sze) said...

阿CM:睇怕答埋呢次, 我要閉關一段時間去study番organization behaviour至得。

1. 您問"D錢同物質有係由邊度黎既呢?"即係等於"d錢係咪樹上生出來", 不如用番"D錢同物質係由老細比既"更好: 無錯, D錢同物質係由老細比既, 不過您聽過"Maslow's hierarchy of needs": Some people maynot only focus on money!

睇番d參考書, 反而覺得真係做Self-motivation唔多: 因為真正做到Self-motivation因為想達到Self-actualization-it is the intrinsic growth of what is already in the organism, or more accurately, of what the organism is. (Psychological Review, 1949)
, 嚴格而言, 您同我都未必做到!

2.Sorry!其實我係Theory X的人(做過test才知我係懶人一名), 您不如搵個Theory Y的人問下: 但點解仲係度返工, 因為自我感覺良好囉!

我寫埋呢篇, 要休息至下年才見啦(自己個blog仲未寫完, 打算在聖誕前登出), 有興趣的話不如上yahoo搵下management的文章, 或者您會得著。

Gideon said...

唔係講笑,CM 你既文又長又深,我真係重複睇幾次都未必 get 倒。

首先我認為人天生會問自己存左既目的,而為左要逹到目的,就自然會有 Self-Motivation 。至於最大既問題令到人會懷疑某人唔會 self-motivate,只係因為某人 self-motive 去做既事,同你 expect 既唔同而已。

其實 CM 應該都見唔少人辭職,係因為份工冇野做。喺一個員工用咁既理由辭職既同時,通常做 HR 第一個反應就係覺得呢啲人冇 self-motivation 。但係呢啲人去搵另一份工既時候,一定會諗,呀,我將來份工一定可以點點點點。其實個啲點點點點,就係一啲可以俾佢地 self-motivate 既環境。我要做衫,都要公司俾倒我剪刀同布料,我要管人,都希望公司有人俾我管。

或者咁講,你指條路我行,當然唔算 self-motivation 。但係,要我 show 倒俾你睇我有 self-motivation ,起碼都要俾條路我行。

C.M. said...

Gideon:

抱歉。小弟不才。自問文筆功力有限,請諒。

其實簡單來說,就是個人之所以不同意有所謂Self-motivation,因如你所說“而為左要逹到目的”- 這個目的,就是那個Motivate 你自己的地方。人是要靠其他東西來Motivate自己。

就算越王勾踐,他也是靠身邊支持的人和復國的憧憬來激勵自己。

而今次寫Self-motivation,就是作為HR,反對其他 HR 硬把"你沒有Self-motivation" 而卸去"to motivate"的責任。

對於你的譬喻:"我要做衫,都要公司俾倒我剪刀同布料,我要管人,都希望公司有人俾我管。" 就正正反映,請人的公司必須提供所需的工具和資源,才能motivate。

bravo said...

CM:
I must confess that I haven't got enough time to read through your whole passage, yet I'd like to briefly share a little piece of idea, as it flashes into my mind. I think I myself belong to self-motivated type. I automatically see how something can be done a bit better, improved a it, so to speak; given enough freedom, I can be motivated to get the job done (like the slogan), done better than it should be done. But then I am not belonging to the employee sector... I am currently in a mode of intellectual pursuit + doing something start with and "e" simultaneously.

bravo said...

oops, "starting with an "e" simultaneously"

C.M. said...

Bravo:

Thanks for visiting again and your "confession". :)

Well, to me, the term "Self-Motivation" is at least two-fold:

1. As an employee/subordinate...

If a subordinate has lost, say, his prospect, he would lose his will to fight. Perhaps in his jobs, he may still find ways to improve, but he had lost (or would be losing) the interest to improve FOR these jobs.

Putting back into your case. Think if it is so: if you have lost your prospect in life, you would lose your interest to improve as well.

And because you are still motivated by the vigor of life, you are in a mode of intellectual pursuit (Wonderful! Bless you!).

Putting back to the other extreme, if life has been battering you, will you also be vulnerable to lose the interest as well?

(But if self-confidence is what we called self-motivation, so be it.)

2. from a manager/HR's point of view.

If some kind of a manager/HR is seeking for a self-motivated staff, it is "shameful".

Bravo, please visit my the other blog "Christmas and Self-motivation". CM was not pleased (oops, not with you definitely).

Keep up with the joy and peace with you. You would surely find something interesting out of this battered world. Be GREAT!

Whooo, I've been practising English again and I really feel goooood. Thanks! Bravo, bravo!

Bravo-cnp said...

c.m.: From your reply in c.k.'s blog, c.m. has run your own business too, probably there might be some similar traits among a few of us here. Recently, Tony's 道別愛將 remind me of the relentless of reality. 1) Despite that you treat your staff as your family member and swear to give this perfect staff(associate or comrade) what you're going to build in the future, the "future picture/vision" injected by you will usually, as you said(I perfectly agree), yield to the hardship/temptation of life so real at the present. 2) Self-motivation, by definition, is internally driven, I presumed. Given a fresh graduate salary (+ no title, no news coverage), I am willing to work in the position of Mr Fok of 3 mobile, and bare all the stress and challenge - because it is fun to change the ecosystem a little bit, right? This is self-motivated, neither taken in a literal sense, nor in vacuum. Self-motivated, I think, is not equivalent to auto-motivated (like a robot with battery), I mean I would like to build or improve things with "relative" freedom, given that I've bread to eat and live well [with a girl perhaps =)] But then I am not an employee. I have a few staffs but at the same time doing intellectual pursuit. So I share a lot of sweat and heart-breaks as Tony does.

I believe you are self-motivated too, or else I won't see you here (the blog your build), right?

Cheers.

C.M. said...

Bravo,

You are surely one of those who make me felt honored to have you commenting my post. Your words have put me into real deep contemplation.

(1) The "Prospects" (thing) is one of the most powerful motivators for your blue-chips-driven staff. When a staff is unable to understand thoroughly how your business develops, they would consider that prospect doesn't exist even though you are full of confidence with your plans. When they cannot see through the mist and somehow find another picturesque scenery, your efforts are going futile.

For family businesses, staff exits for better prospects because for most of the time, they DON'T know what prospects they are having. They do have a prospect, but family "members" selectively (though not on purpose) choose what prospects to be told.

Motivation works by giving your heart while Managing expectation usually goes beyond that. ~_~

(2) A credit for you. ^^

I had had worked and was willing to work for an unprofitable client at the time of my own business. No title, no news coverage - but just hardship and ... a bleak future of seeing any profits. I worked very happily. It's surely true, it would be as you said, the self-motivation that pushed me through.

And in this intellectual pursuit, the one gaining profits was not my client, but me. Therefore, I motivated myself to gain profits (or whatever). During that period of client work, I myself paid for my livelihood (goodness... not any a girl around) and for my pursuit. In this sense, you are right and I totally agree with you.

I have been thinking hard with your case and you are going to have me convinced. And I also have been thinking hard for playing two roles - as a student in school and as a son of my parents. Would I be self-motivated? (And in this business world, would it be "shameful" to screening for self-motivated employees?)

Cheers!

C.M. said...

For more reference, check out:

Stochastic Game